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The Formulas


Chemicals are dangerous if used incorrectly.  This page gives formulas for developers and other reagents used in the processing of Black and White photograph negatives and prints.  Anyone interested in these processes should consult proper material from reputable sources.

Like all keen amateurs, Anthony used to mix his own reagents from scratch.  I recently found a number of such “recipes” written on bits of paper, backs of envelopes and backs of dud photographs.  While this collection of formulas is very disorganised, the handwriting is clearly legible and is therefore an example of Anthony’s neat script.  Also standing out is the lack of spelling mistakes in these recipes which contain some tongue-twisting chemical names.  This is a reflection that Anthony had started tertiary education before being called for service at the beginning of WW2.  Tertiary education amongst the Maltese was something of a rarity at that time.  The whole collection of recipes and formulas shall be given as a PDF file in the downloads page.

Formula-Cavalli Formula-ID36

For further details and an in-depth discussion of the chemistry of Black and White photographs you may wish to consult fvarious sites on the Internet such as the one shown below. 


Noel Ciantar
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